Sunday, May 24, 2020

Enron s Culture Project Enron - 1589 Words

Miranda Vehlewald Enron Ethical Culture Project Part 1: Enron’s Culture Enron started out as a dominant culture. Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling had a vision of how they wanted the company to be and where they wanted it to go. When Lay put Skilling in charge, he made it his mission to hire the best traders, recruiting them from the best schools and other companies. They gave employees corporate rewards like concierge services and a company gym. As the company grew larger, the culture began to take a turn for the worse. Enron demonstrated a few cultural dimensions such as high risk-taking, outcome orientation, and aggressiveness. Skilling established the Performance Review Committee which was an extremely harsh ranking system. It was†¦show more content†¦With the rating system, employees were so paranoid about losing their jobs, that they made any kind of deal they could to post earnings, even if it was only beneficial in short term. They began to turn their backs on each other through increased secrecy and competi tiveness. With mark-to-marketing accounting, Enron created the markets that determined the values of their assets. When Enron signed contracts, they immediately reported their estimated earnings and made up numbers. Skilling and Fastow overestimated asset values so it was more attractive in the market, bringing in more earnings. When Andrew Fastow became in charge of the SPEs, things got more complicated and he began to use them in an unethical manner. He used SPEs for assets that were falling in value so they could be kept off Enron’s books. He began to run controversial SPEs himself, which paid him millions of dollars in management fees. He also went against accounting principles when he increased notes receivable and shareholders’ equity. At the beginning of Enron’s existence, ethics and integrity were important to the company. They had a code of ethics and mentioned integrity as one of their principles of human rights. That began to change when Ken Lay hired Jeff Skilling to be put in charge, who in turn hired Andrew Fastow. Skilling and Fastow were only concerned aboutShow MoreRelatedUniversity of Phoenix Organizational Culture1133 Words   |  5 PagesOrganizational culture can be defined as the system of attitudes, beliefs and values that are collectively expressed in support of organizational structure. Organizational culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that dictate the behavior of individuals within an organization. Culture determines which practices are appropriate and which are not, effectively developing standards, guidelines, and expectations for individuals within an organization. Although they work hand in hand, there isRead MoreThe Leadership Styles Of The Executive Staff1383 Words   |  6 Pages â€Å"Was Enron the Work of a Few Bad Men or Dark Shadow of the American Dream?† In August 2000, Enron, an American energy corporation, stock had reached a high of $90.75 per share. However, by November 2001, the price had plummeted to less than a dollar amidst the collapse of one of analysts’ most highly recommended investments. On December 2, 2001, Enron became the largest American corporate bankruptcy to date. The company was deceptive, even fooling Fortune Magazine into naming it â€Å"America’sRead MoreThe Ethics Code Of Enron1586 Words   |  7 PagesEnron’s ethics code Respect, integrity, communication and excellence are the ethics code of Enron. These four aspects have a crucial impact on business ethics. â€Å"Ethics requires respect. One cannot exist without the other. Ethical success depends on understanding the profound impact that respect has on your ethics and character.† As Mark S. Putnam said in his article â€Å"Respect: The Starting Point for Good Ethics†(2003), we need to make respect our obligation and show everyone a certain degree of respectRead MoreEnron : A Model Of The Innovative Company1684 Words   |  7 PagesEnron Enron began in July 1985, and its headquarters were in Houston. It started from a small regional energy supplier. However, Enron was dissatisfied with the traditional way of doing business, so it began to look toward energy security. Enron s management believed that the creation of derivative securities market for any commodity was possible, so Enron developed energy commodity futures, options, and other financial derivatives. Energy deregulation brought this company great commercial opportunitiesRead MoreThe Enron Scandal854 Words   |  4 PagesThe Enron Scandal Background Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas. Before its bankruptcy on December 2, 2001, Enron employed approximately 20,000 staff and was one of the world s leading electricity, natural gas, communications, and pulp and paper companies, with claimed revenues of nearly $101 billion in 2000.[1] Fortune named Enron America s Most Innovative Company for six consecutive years. At the end of 2001, it was revealedRead MoreEnron Scandal And Its Impact On The Economy Essay1305 Words   |  6 PagesThe Enron scandal was the largest corporate financial scandal ever when it emerged. It took the economy the better part of a year to recover from the damage the Enron controversy caused to the US as a whole. Enron is not fully responsible, but it was a large contributor to the collapse of the stock market in the early 2000’s. In the year following the 9/11 hit to our country and economy the DOW lost close to 4500 points; down to 7500 fr om almost 12000, it did gain some back, but considering the greatRead MoreEnrons Ethics Code Of Enron1552 Words   |  7 PagesAbstracts Enron was once one of the largest companies in the world. After many years of using diverse accounting tricks, they finally had to file bankruptcy in December 2001 due to not being able to hide billions in debt. The top 140 executives got paid 680 million in 2001. (CNN Library, 2015). Kenneth Lay as the founder of Enron and Jeffrey Skilling as the chief executive were both convicted in 2006. (Weiss, 2009, p.28). Thousands of workers were left with valueless stock in their pensions whichRead MoreEssay about Enrons Organizational Culture957 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Enron’s organizational culture† Questions for Discussion 1. Explain how Enrons culture influenced practices outcomes, include advantages and disadvantages Answer: the advantages of Enron’s culture are that they were very aggressive (saying yes to other projects) and unethical (corruption, corners cutting), in that way the company can generate a quick grow. But the disadvantages are very high; they completely lost control of the company because they gave freedom to young andRead MoreRise and Fall of Enron Essay872 Words   |  4 PagesThe rise and fall of Enron is a company that was lead to its own demise by it’s own leadership and ill business decisions. The motivational theories explained from the readings of Organization Behavior can correlate with the failure of Enron’s internal organization. Even though a company may appear to display successful business practices, the influence of leadership through management can ultimately lead the company to fail. Enron’s code of ethics prided itself on four key values; respect, integrityRead MoreENRON and Faudulent Record Keeping Practices1369 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Enron went from modestly outperforming the Standard Poor’s 500 in the early 1990’s to drastically outperforming it in 1999 and 2000. In 1999 and 2000, Enron stock increased 56 percent and 87 percent, respectively; compared with to only a 20 percent increase and 10 percent decline for the index during the same years (Healy and Palepu, 3 2003). While these increases were originally attributed to innovation (being rated the most innovative company in America by Fortune), it was later

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The No Child Left Behind Act - 869 Words

As far as learning for standardized testing goes there is a federal act involved that plays a role in the educational system and controls how the educational system teaches and tests these students. This act is named, The No Child Left Behind Act. This act makes standardized assessments mandatory for all fifty states. This law serves a purpose to test students in reading and math for grades three through eight. In high school, students are required to test and they are expected to meet or exceed state standards in reading and math. (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) â€Å"The major focus of No Child Left Behind is to close student achievement gaps by providing all children with a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education† (Elementary and Secondary Education Act). But since the early 2000s, has this act kept it promise or has the responsibility of this act been not meeting these standards? When this law was first placed, it was said that this act would make it possible for students in the United States to become proficient in math and reading by the year 2014. (National Council of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy) But, does this mean that every student in the U.S. will meet these expectations? The National Council of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy does not believe so. â€Å"The No Child Left Behind Act sets an impossibly high bar—that every single student will be proficient in reading and math by 2014. WeShow MoreRelatedNo Child Left Behind Act1621 Words   |  7 Pages The support for the No Child Left Behind Act plummeted down shortly after the act passed. Many people supported the act at first simply because they supported the goals of the act, once they saw the results, their opinions changed. One of the biggest arguments towards No Child Left Behind is that it is unfair. People believed the resources of difference schools were unequal, and thought the Title 1 fun ding that the schools received should go to ensuring all schools had equal resources. Many peopleRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1670 Words   |  7 Pages Literature Review: Every Student Succeeds Act Suzanne Hatton, BSW, LSW University of Kentucky-SW 630 Abstract This literature review seeks to explore the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015), a bipartisan reauthorization and revision to the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the first law passed in fourteen years to address Reneeded changes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Considered progressive and innovative at the time of itsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act875 Words   |  4 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act â€Å"NCLB† was a bill passed by the Senate in 2001 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. It was a revision of the Elementary and Secondary Act â€Å"ESEA† of 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson. The NCLB was intended to help children in lower-income families achieve the same standard of education as children in higher income families. This was done by the federal government providing extra finances for Title I schools in exchange for a rise in academicRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1418 Wor ds   |  6 Pagessystematic oppression. The flowing water of oppression floods poor schools; drowning students with dreams, and giving no mercy. The only ones safe from the water are the privileged, who are oblivious to the fact that it exists. George Bush s No Child Left Behind Act, which passed in 2002, mandated annual standardized testing in math and reading. If schools received insufficient scores, they were punished or shut down. This fueled the construed concept that a school is only doing well if the students haveRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act Essay921 Words   |  4 Pagesuccessful at it. (Source 7) Next, the â€Å"No Child left behind Act† it was signed by President George W. Bush and it passed with bipartisan support on Jan. 8, 2002. This Act states that there will be mandated annual testing in the subject reading and math and science. In the grades 3-8 and 10th grade. It shows the Adequate Yearly Progress of each school in the system of the United States. (source 1) The biggest point of this Act is that no child is â€Å"trapped in a failing school† (source 1). That eachRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act2120 Words   |  9 PagesWhen President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law in 2002, the legislation had one goal-- to improve educational equity for all students in the United States by implementing standards for student achievement and school district and teacher performance. Before the No Child Left Behind Act, the program of study for most schools was developed and implemented by individual states and local communities†™ school boards. Proponents of the NCLB believed that lax oversightRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1988 Words   |  8 PagesJanuary 8, 2002, George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law (also known as the NCLB). The No Child Left Behind Act was the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, a federal education bill addressing the nation’s schools. At his signing ceremony, Bush stated, â€Å"There’s no greater challenge than to make sure that every child—and all of us on this stage mean every child, not just a few children—every single child, regardless of where they live, how they’reRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1592 Words   |  7 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act was the biggest educational step taken by president Bush and his administration. Its main goal included the increase of achievement in education and completely eliminate the gap between different racial and ethnic grou ps. Its strategies had a major focus on uplifting test scores in schools, hiring â€Å"highly qualified teachers† and deliver choices in education. Unluckily, the excessive demands of the law have not succeeded in achieving the goals that were set, and have causedRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1747 Words   |  7 PagesNo Child Left Behind Introduction The No Child Left Behind Act (NALB) was signed into law by the former President of the United States George Walker Bush on the 8th of January 2002. It was a congressional attempt to encourage student achievement through some reforms focused on elementary and secondary education programs in the United States. The NCLB requires that within a decade all students including those with disabilities to perform at a proficient level on their state academic evaluation testsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1124 Words   |  5 PagesChristian J. Green Dr. Shoulders NCLB and ESSA 28 February 2016 The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was authorized by and signed into law in 2002. NCLB was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. NCLB was meant to hold schools to higher standards, enforce accountability, and close achievement gaps that had existed in education since ESEA was enacted. Nevertheless, the rigorous standards and goals set forth under NCLB were never attained. ESEA Flexibility could

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The ways in which ideas were communicated to the audience in War Spectacular Free Essays

We constructed War Spectacular to be an abstract piece made up of a number of unconnected scenes; this structure enabled us to tell numerous different stories, all with their own message. We realised early in the devising process that in order to keep this piece objective we would have to keep all of the scenes and settings non-specific, if we used the real names of locations, religions or people it may have caused offence to the audience, thus drawing away from our message. There were many different messages we wanted to convey to the audience; however there was one theme which ran throughout the piece, ultimately connecting the disjointed scenes; we were showing the different ‘faces of war’. We will write a custom essay sample on The ways in which ideas were communicated to the audience in War Spectacular or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first ‘face of war’ which we wanted to show was the human element of war. The original concept for the play was to show the affect of a conflict upon two families, show their struggle, and ultimately their collapse. Although this concept was scrapped the themes were kept for use during War Spectacular. You can read also Audience Adaptation Paper If we were to show the human and emotional side of war it was obvious that we needed to use a group of ‘real’ characters (opposed to the more abstract characters which would use throughout the play which would lack exposition and depth) who would open up to one another and show their hatred for the conflict. We constructed a scene with three soldiers who had been split from their unit and were forced to take shelter from the enemy in a bomb crater. My character was bitter and angry with my superior who, with his little leadership experience had got them no closer to safety. With talk of home and arguments together the two showed their insecurities and ultimately their fear. In this scene home was constructed to be the place which was away from this conflict, it is ‘safe, it’s warm†¦ and dry’. However, in the scene ‘War spectacular’ this ideal of home was destroyed. The execution of a man within his own house was used to show that war is now not just on the battlefields but in our streets and homes. This intrusion of safety was not just meant literally but metaphorically too – with modern media we are spared no detail of a conflict; past generations believed that their ‘brave boys’ were safe and doing the good of the country, now the truth is only too evident. At the beginning of the devising process I was very keen to have a subtext of media manipulation throughout the play; this was achieved through two scenes. First I wanted to make the ironic point about the hypocrisy of a news report (‘War Spectacular’ by Kate Adie) which compares a missile launch to a fireworks display, and then attempts to convey the reporters concern for the human suffering of mugged refugees. Reciting this piece while playing Holst’s Saturn, an eerie classical track gave the reading a strange poetic nature which a war report really shouldn’t have. This recital was made DSR, whilst a soldier robbed a dead body CS; this abstract staging was used to show the reporters obliviousness to the events which were actually happening around her. With these juxtapositions, the article lost all the sincerity with which it may have be written; showing how easy it is to both overlook the true meaning of news we are being provided with, and how what we are being shown with can never be the full story, and just the observations of one person. The second scene showing our media subtext was our most complex, both to construct and to perform. Set in a Middle Eastern bar we meet three journalists, Danny Richards, Kate Stevens and Malcolm Grey – Danny and Kate are both shown as rookies and Malcolm the veteran. A number of flashbacks are used throughout the scene as a means of exposition for each of the characters but also showing their different journalistic styles. Half way through the journalist scene we cut to Kate standing DSR reporting from the aftermath of a missile attack. We see her emotional report which describes a graphic and horrific scene. When her report is finished she asks the cameraman ‘brutal enough? ‘ – again showing the hypocrisy of the so-called emotionally attached reporter. Continuing in the bar Malcolm questions Danny’s integrity, calling him a ‘Two-bit rookie’ in response to this the audience is shown an interview between Danny, an interpreter and a woman living in a village which has been raided by American troops. This scene was used to show how drastically information can become. Statements coming from the village woman, through the interpreter and then to Danny are changed ‘Chinese whispers’ style until their meaning has been completely lost. For example, the word ‘Americans’ is changed to ‘military’ and then to ‘militants’. We ensured that it was the interpreter which made the most drastic mistakes, showing that it was not Danny who was at fault, and that this corruption of the truth could happen even to the most professional reporters. So to contrast this media orientated aspect of war we wanted to show a side of war that has very little understanding to it; the new warfare of fanaticism and blind allegiance. However much research we did for these roles it was always impossible to collect information which was objective as everything that we had collected was opinionated and not factual. With this stigma in mind, I felt that it was important to work with the theme of connection between all human beings which had been established in the opening scene as it would have been easy to just cast the characters in this section as inhuman, and so we worked to show the audience familiarities with these characters that they otherwise would have trouble connecting with. With the child soldier it was the shock of his revealed age which worked to remind the audience that the ‘inhuman’ soldier was still a small boy, and as the audience was made up of students and parents we felt that this would force them to think of children close to them. Similarly, the suicide bomber, whilst fanatical, still showed very human traits. He had thoughts of his family, performed this act because he believed that he was right and ‘just’, and ultimately showed fear. In contrast to this very new attitude to war we wanted to depict a very old fashioned warfare which looking back on it is now highly comical. The ‘new generation’ of weaponry was presented to the audience in the form of a ‘1950’s style’ advert. The main purpose for this scene was to provide the audience with a comic relief from the seriousness of the play. However, whilst this was an opportunity to relax placing this scene previous to the suicide bomber scene it to show a drastic change in attitude to warfare, whilst the character of the advert believed that that their weapons would drive the empire into the 20th century, the suicide bomber represents a very modern and much more dangerous enemy; one which does not have a flag or country, but just a cause and the will to cause destruction. The piece was concluded with the recital of the poem, ‘All things are connected’ which we quoted for the opening sequence. With lines such as ‘Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it’ it worked well to convey our themes of unison as a race – although the hope of total peace is a fantasy, it is the theme which ultimately runs throughout the whole of the piece. How to cite The ways in which ideas were communicated to the audience in War Spectacular, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Pablo Picasso Analysis Essay Example For Students

Pablo Picasso Analysis Essay Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y (1881-1973), Spanish painter and sculptor, is consideredone of the greatest artist of the 20th century. He was a inventor of forms,innovator of styles and techniques, a master of various media, and one of themost prolific artists in history. He created more than 20,000 works. Trainingand Early Work Picasso was Born in Mlaga on October 25, 1881, he was the sonof Jos Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and Mara Picasso y Lopez. Until 1898 healways used his fathers name, Ruiz, and his mothers maiden name, Picasso, tosign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped Ruiz and used his mothersmaiden name to sign his pictures. At the age of 10 he made his first paintings,and at 15 he performed brilliantly on the entrance examinations to BarcelonasSchool of Fine Arts. His large academic canvas Science and Charity (1897,Picasso Museum, Barcelona), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sickwomans bedside, won a gold medal. Blue Period Between 1900 and 1902, Picassomade three trips to Paris, finally settling there in 1904. He found the citysbohemian street life fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls andcafs show how he learned the postimpressionism of the French painter PaulGauguin and the symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes of the Frenchpainters Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of thelatter, exerted the strongest influence. Picassos Blue Room (1901, PhillipsCollection, Washington, D.C.) reflects the work of both these painters and, atthe same time, shows his evolution toward the Blue Period, so called becausevarious shades of blue dominated his work for the next few years. Expressinghuman misery, the paintings portray blind figures, beggars, alcoholics, andprostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of works by the Spanishartist El Greco. Rose Period Shortly after settling in Paris in a shabbybuilding known as the Bateau-Lavoir (laundry barge, which it resembled),Picasso met Fernande Olivier, the first of many companions to influence thetheme, style, and mood of his work. With this happy relationship, Picassochanged his palette to pinks and reds; the years 1904 and 1905 are thus calledthe Rose Period. Many of his subjects were drawn from the circus, which hevisited several times a week; one such painting is Family of Saltimbanques(1905, National Gallery, Washington, D.C. ). In the figure of the harlequin,Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice he repeated in later works aswell. Dating from his first decade in Paris are friendships with the poet MaxJacob, the writer Guillaume Apollinaire, the art dealers Ambroise Vollard andDaniel Henry Kahnweiler, and the American expatriate writers Gertrude Stein andher brother Leo, who were his first important patrons; Picasso did portraits ofthem all. Protocubism In the summer of 1906, during Picassos stay in Gsol,Spain, his work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian,and African art. His celebrated portrait of Gertrude Stein (1905-1906,Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) reveals a masklike treatment of herface. The key work of this early period, however, is Les demoiselles dAvignon(1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), so radical in styleits picturesurface resembling fractured glassthat it was not even understood bycontemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Destroyed were spatial depth andthe ideal form of the female nude, which Picasso restructured into harsh,angular planes. CubismAnalytic and Synthetic Inspired by the volumetrictreatment of form by the French postimpressionist artist Paul Czanne, Picassoand the French artist Georges Braque painted landscapes in 1908 in a style laterdescribed by a critic as being made of little cubes, thus leading to theterm cubism. .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .postImageUrl , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:hover , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:visited , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:active { border:0!important; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:active , .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97 .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4ac3a7c621f50c2a256dc17e76c5ce97:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and Antigone by Sophocles Essay Some of their paintings are so similar that it is difficult to tellthem apart. Working together between 1908 and 1911, they were concerned withbreaking down and analyzing form, and together they developed the first phase ofcubism, known as analytic cubism. Monochromatic color schemes were favored intheir depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shownsimultaneously. Picassos favorite subjects were musical instruments, still-lifeobjects, and his friends; one famous portrait is Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (1910,Art Institute of Chicago). In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to thecanvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his firstcollage, Still Life with Chair Caning (Muse Picasso, Paris). This techniquemarked a transition to synthetic cubism. This second phase of cubism is moredecorative, and color plays a major role, although shapes remain fragmented andflat. Picasso was to practice synthetic cubism throughout his career, but by nomeans exclusively. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work indifferent styles: Harlequin (Museum of Modern Art) is a synthetic cubistpainting, whereas a drawing of his dealer, Vollard, now in the MetropolitanMuseum, is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because of itsdraftsmanship, emulating that of the 19th-century French neoclassical artistJean-August-Dominique Ingres. Cubist Sculpture Picasso created cubist sculpturesas well as paintings. The bronze bust Fernande Olivier (also called Head of aWoman, 1909, Museum of Modern Art) shows his consummate skill in handlingthree-dimensional form. He also made constructionssuch as Mandolin andClarinet (1914, Muse Picasso)from odds and ends of wood, metal, paper, andnonartistic materials, in which he explored the spatial hypotheses of cubistpainting. His Glass of Absinthe (1914, Museum of Modern Art), combining a silversugar strainer with a painted bronze sculpture, anticipates his much laterfound object creations, such as Baboon and Young (1951, Museum of ModernArt), as well as pop art objects of the 1960s. Realist and Surrealist WorksDuring World War I (1914-1918), Picasso went to Rome, working as a designer withSergey Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. He met and married the dancer OlgaKoklova. In a realist style, Picasso made several portraits of her around 1917,of their son (for example, Paulo as Harlequin; 1924, Muse Picasso), and ofnumerous friends. In the early 1920s he did tranquil, neoclassical pictures ofheavy, sculpturesque figures, an example being Three Women at the Spring (1921,Museum of Modern Art), and works inspired by mythology, such as The Pipes of Pan(1923, Muse Picasso). At the same time, Picasso also created strange picturesof small-headed bathers and violent convulsive portraits of women which areoften taken to indicate the tension he experienced in his marriage. Although hestated he was not a surrealist, many of his pictures have a surreal anddisturbing quality, as in Sleeping Woman in Armchair (1927, Private Collection,Brussel) and Seated Bather (1930, Museum of Modern Art). Paintings of the Early1930s Several cubist paintings of the early 1930s, stressing harmonious,curvilinear lines and expressing an underlying eroticism, reflect Picassospleasure with his newest love, Marie Thrse Walter, who gave birth to theirdaughter Maa in 1935. Marie Thrse, frequently portrayed sleeping, also wasthe model for the famous Girl Before a Mirror (1932, Museum of Modern Art). In1935 Picasso made the etching Minotauromachy, a major work combining hisminotaur and bullfight themes; in it the disemboweled horse, as well as thebull, prefigure the imagery of Guernica, a mural often called the most importantsingle work of the 20th century. Throughout Picassos lifetime, his work wasexhibited on countless occasions, in many different places. Most unusual,however, was the 1971 exhibition at the Louvre, in Paris, honoring him on his90th birthday; until then, living artists had not been shown there. .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .postImageUrl , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:hover , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:visited , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:active { border:0!important; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:active , .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1 .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2edcb46a9de17df2bb68782d3a8c97c1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Police Brutality Essay In 1980 amajor retrospective showing of his work was held at the Museum of Modern Art inNew York City. Picasso died in his villa Notre-Dame-de-Vie near Mougins on April8, 1973.Arts and Painting

Monday, March 30, 2020

Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks

Starbucks holds an enviable position among innovative companies. The coffee chain has an insatiable appetite for innovation. The company is willing to suffer some losses in the near-term to develop superior products in the long-term via incremental innovation. However, the willingness to suffer losses is not what makes the company outstanding.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company’s wish to pay a high price in pursuit of innovation is what reflects its remarkable feature. This paper uses management tools and frameworks to explore the role that management practices play to support innovation. Specifically, the paper evaluates how Starbucks creates and develops opportunities and how it manages innovation. In addition, the paper explores how this company behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation. Creating a nd Developing Opportunities A number of studies that explore the capacity of entrepreneurs to create and develop opportunities exist. Ardichvili, Cardozo and Ray (2003) contend that entrepreneurs do not create opportunities but rather recognize the presence and emergence of opportunities. In this sense, the authors propose that the main issue to investigate when studying the dynamics of business opportunities is the entrepreneurial capacity to develop, recognize, and evaluate them. In recent times, sustainability has become a major issue in entrepreneurship because of the concerns associated with the deteriorating global environment. Research shows that entrepreneurs who are aware of environmental issues tend to identify and pursue business opportunities in ways that promote sustainable operations. They do not just look at the financial rewards that the opportunity will bring, but also the sustainable features of the business opportunity. The five main factors that drive the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities are â€Å"entrepreneurial alertness, information asymmetry and prior knowledge, social networks, personality traits, and the nature of the business opportunity†.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Entrepreneurial alertness refers to the ability of an entrepreneur to maintain a high level of awareness in regard to emerging opportunities. If an entrepreneur lacks entrepreneurial alertness, it is difficult for him/her to identify emergent opportunities. Information asymmetry and prior knowledge refer to the knowledgebase of an entrepreneur. At organizational level, this quality is the basis for the emergence of concept of learning organizations. Knowledge makes it possible for entrepreneurs to recognize opportunities when they are still undefined. In addition, it spurs the capacity of the entrepreneur to make the decisi ons needed to transform a business opportunity into a business venture. Social networks play a vital role in the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities because entrepreneurs often need information and resources not currently under their control to pursue business opportunities. It is normal for entrepreneurs to identify opportunities that they cannot develop unless they get assistance from their social network. The personality traits of entrepreneurs also determine how they pursue business opportunities. While all entrepreneurs are risk takers, they have different degrees of risk tolerance. Companies like Starbucks have a greater appetite for risk compared to most of their competitors. This comes from the personalities of the leaders of the firm. One personality issue that may influence the way an entrepreneur handles business opportunities is whether the given entrepreneur is an introvert or an extrovert. In this case, an extroverted entrepreneur has a larger social network to draw support from while an introverted entrepreneur has a smaller list of trusted allies. It could be estimated that Starbucks loves risk as the company believes in the rapid deployment of ideas followed by careful analysis and improvement of the original idea over time. Companies such as Apple ensure that they have fully developed a product before they release it to the market. In fact, Apple takes a lot of care to keep its product development processes secret, until the release of specific products. Starbucks sustains entrepreneurial alertness by maintaining a data collection system that gathers information from its employees and customers. Employees are asked to write to the company’s executives each time they feel that a given decision goes against the mission of the company.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This also allows the company to attain information asymmetry because at any time, the company has more information regarding a specific issue affecting its business compared to its competitors. This enables the company to take advantage of the opportunities that arise in its favor. Managing Innovation In the context of organisational innovation, the word that represents the activities of entrepreneurs is â€Å"intrapreneurship†. â€Å"Intrapreneurship† refers to the activities undertaken by individuals within organisations that promote innovation. These activities focus on internal opportunities or circumstances that demand changes in the operations of a given organization. In this sense, innovation is not limited to the activities of individuals, but rather innovation can be the result of the activities of teams in an organisation. In cases where teams promote innovation, intrapreneurship refers to their collective activities that improve the servi ces and products offered by the organisation. Innovation can take place at the â€Å"micro level, the meso level, and the macro level†. At the micro level it refers to activities undertaken by the organisation internally to ensure that it improves its products and services. Innovation at the meso level refers to the industry specific elements of innovation covering the organisation’s supply chain and its immediate operating environment. Macro level innovation results from opportunities that arise because of things that take place at a higher level, such as changes in legislative frameworks and the legal environment of the business. Starbucks is adept at the management of innovation. The company has a strong culture of innovation, which is the backbone of its entrepreneurial model. Starbucks is using all available means to expand its footprint beyond the coffee sector. In fact, some people question whether coffee is just a Trojan horse in the Starbucks business model. T his question is valid, especially considering the portfolio of products that Starbucks is already offering, and the products that it is planning to launch. Starbucks is aware that innovation in the current business climate must go beyond the traditional aspects of innovation, which were quality control, cost cutting, and operational efficiency.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first area of focus in the current paradigm of innovation is the reinvention of business processes. The second one is collaboration and integration within the firm, and the third one is the creation of new markets by meeting the emerging needs of customers. The drivers of innovation at the macro level include the growth of e-commerce, and globalisation. One of the consequences of innovation using these new approaches is that companies find themselves with new competitors. When Starbucks started selling music, it found itself in direct competition with Apple. Apple, on the other hand, is not primarily a music retailer but a technology firm. The Apple iTunes store was an innovative offshoot to support Apple’s iPod business. Starbucks, which is a coffee firm, finds itself in direct competition with Apple, which is a technology company, for a share of the music market. Another illustration of the new philosophies of innovation at play in the Starbucks business model is the co llaboration between Starbucks and PepsiCo to sell hot-on-demand coffee through vending machines. Starbucks specialises in selling different types of coffee products to its clients. On the other hand, PepsiCo has a large network of vending machines and has a lot of experience with vending technology. Therefore, the innovative collaboration between these two firms led to the introduction of hot-on-demand coffee. PepsiCo owns the technology while Starbucks supplies the network with coffee. This way, the two companies are able to expand their footprint in the beverages market. Behaving as an Entrepreneurial Organization Entrepreneurial organisations refer to firms that have an active philosophy, which encourages entrepreneurial behaviour in the firm. This dimension is very important in the current business climate because of the competitive nature of international trade. Organisational structures can be entrepreneurial or administrative. Entrepreneurial organisations are said to practic e corporate entrepreneurship. The difference between administrative and entrepreneurial organsations is the attitude of their top leadership to risk. Administrative organisations favour the pursuit of low risk opportunities for lower rewards. Entrepreneurial organisations, on the other hand, favour the pursuit of higher risk opportunities for higher rewards. One of the key indicators of an entrepreneurial organisation is the ability to develop and deploy new products ahead of the competition. This calls for intense innovation and a solid risk philosophy. A company such as Apple thrives on the capacity to develop and release new products ahead of its competition. It is very difficult to sustain this ability without having an entrepreneurial mindset across the organisation. In other words, a company that wants to use innovation as its source of competitive advantage must have an entrepreneurial culture. An important aspect in the development of entrepreneurial organisations is that th e top management of the firms must be entrepreneurial. It is impossible to develop an entrepreneurial organisation where the top managers are averse to risk, or have no entrepreneurial commitment. At the same time, the organisation must be able to give middle level managers the ability to experiment with new systems, and to learn. Middle level managers represent the future of the organisation. If the entrepreneurial mindset exists only at the top, then the organisation cannot survive in the long-term. Starbucks CEO, Howard Schultz is well known for his entrepreneurial traits. Schultz worked with Starbucks when it was a very small retail chain. He was on a visit to Italy where Italian coffee bars inspired him to develop a national coffee retail chain in America. When the management of Starbucks refused to buy into Schultz idea, he went on to open new coffee retail stores named â€Å"Il Giornale†, on his own. Afterwards, Schultz entered into an agreement with Starbucks to buy t he coffee company. He chose to retain the Starbucks as the name for his expanded company. This story illustrates that Starbucks has always been in the hands of a very entrepreneurial leader. As such, the company has retained its knack for creativity and innovation. Starbucks behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation because it has a very innovative and risk tolerant CEO. The company is not always successful in all its endeavours. However, no effort goes to waste because the company usually builds on the lessons it learns from its entrepreneurial ventures. The company is aggressive in seeking feedback. It seeks the opinion of its staff, and monitors the comments made online by its clients and competitors, which gives the company an advantage. Risk Profile The activities of the company illustrate that it has a highly established entrepreneurial culture as well as a high level of risk tolerance. The organisation prefers to launch new products quickly before competitors can respond in contrast to many multinationals that prefer to refine new products before releasing them to the market. In conclusion, Starbucks is adept at creating and developing business opportunities. It does this by maintaining a high appetite for risk. The company has developed a culture that tolerates its aggressive risk behavior and is also active in the pursuit of innovation in its operations. Its model for managing innovation takes into account the modern approaches to innovation, which include collaboration with other businesses to create new markets. Finally, the organisation demonstrates tendencies of corporate entrepreneurship in its activities. The most compelling evidence of this is the personal profile of its CEO, Howard Schultz who supports corporate entrepreneurship as a serial innovator and entrepreneur. Reference List Ardichvili, A, Cardozo, R Ray, S 2003, ‘A Theory of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Development’, Journal of Business Venturing, vol 18, pp. 105-123. Borkowski, N Gordon, J 2005, ‘Entrepreneurial Organizations: The Driving Force for Improving Quality in the Healthcare Industy’, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, vol 3, no. 4, pp. 531-549. Dalal, S 2007, Creativity And Innovation Driving Business, Creativity Innovation Books, Mumbai. Daughtry, TC Casselman, GL 2009, Executing Strategy: From Boardroom to Frontline, Capital Books, Herndon, VI. Davila, T, Marc, EJ Robert, SD 2007, The Creative Enterprise: Culture, Greenwood Publishing Group, Boston, MA. Ferrell, OC Hartline, MD 2008, Marketing Strategy, Cengage Learning, New York, NY. Flamholtz, EG Randle, Y 2012, Growing Pains: Transitioning from an Entrepreneurship to a Professionally Managed Firm, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. Gapp, R Fisher, R 2007, ‘Developing an Intrapreneur-led Three-phase Model of Innovation’, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour Research, vol 13, no. 6, pp. 330-348. Harvar d Business School 2005, Strategy: Create and Implement the Best Strategy for Your Business, Harvard Business Press, Boston, MA. Jaakson, K, Tamm, D Hammal, G 2011, ‘Organisational Innovativeness in Estonian Biotechnology Organisations’, Baltic Journal of Management, vol 6, no. 2, pp. 205-226. Jones, MA 2008, The Innovation Acid Test: Growth Through Design and Differentiation, The Innovation Acid Test: Growth Through Design and Differentiation, Axminster. Kazmi, A 2008, Strategic Managenent and Business Policy, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi. Lau, TL, Shaffer, MA Chan, KF 2012, ‘The Entrepreneurial Behaviour Inventory: A Simulated Incident Method to Assess Corporate Entrepreneurship’, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour Research, vol 18, no. 6, pp. 673-993. Patzelt, H Shepherd, DA 2011, ‘Recognizing Opportunities for Sustainable Development’, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol 10, no. 11, pp. 631-652. Robert, MG 2005, Cont emporary Strategy Analysis, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA. Sahaf, MA 2008, Strategic Marketing: Making Decisions For Strategic Advantage, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. This report on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks was written and submitted by user Landry Barton to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on Oil Spills

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: the Harm That Followed Almost 14,000 oil spills are reported each year. The Exxon Valdez oil spill is one these reported and also one of the world’s most known. It was not the largest spill, but it had the most detrimental environmental effects known today. The Exxon Valdez spill is also the most expensive spills to date. The spill occurred in Prince William Sound of Alaska. This is a large commercial fishing industry, plus it is home to migratory birds, sea otters, and many other marine mammals. The Exxon Valdez spill sadly could have been prevented. Because of the negligence of the captain of the Exxon Valdez, the tanker struck a reef with detrimental effects. The Exxon Valdez tanker was loaded with 40 million gallons (952,000 barrels) of oil in Valdez from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The captain of the ship, Captain Joseph Hazelwood, came on board after having drinks with a friend at the port. Once the ship was filled they wasted no time and began their journey to the refineries in Long Beach, California after dark on the evening of March 23, 1989. When the captain boarded the ship, he knew many things about the ship. For example, when the 987 foot long ship is fully loaded it rides five stories deep in the water (Blashfield, 17). Bligh Reef, which they would be passing by is only 40 feet below the surface of the sea. This massive ship takes at least two miles to stop. Knowing all of this information Captain Hazelwood decided to cut it close by trying to turn the tanker in the narrow space between the ice and the reef. (Schoowe, 11). With all of this known, the captain did three strange things. He ordered the helmsman to put the ship on automatic pilot, he ordered the engines accelerated to a speed normally used only in open seas, and he left the bridge, with a junior officer, third mate Gregory Cousins, in charge while he went to his cabin. What happened next will later be a ... Free Essays on Oil Spills Free Essays on Oil Spills The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: the Harm That Followed Almost 14,000 oil spills are reported each year. The Exxon Valdez oil spill is one these reported and also one of the world’s most known. It was not the largest spill, but it had the most detrimental environmental effects known today. The Exxon Valdez spill is also the most expensive spills to date. The spill occurred in Prince William Sound of Alaska. This is a large commercial fishing industry, plus it is home to migratory birds, sea otters, and many other marine mammals. The Exxon Valdez spill sadly could have been prevented. Because of the negligence of the captain of the Exxon Valdez, the tanker struck a reef with detrimental effects. The Exxon Valdez tanker was loaded with 40 million gallons (952,000 barrels) of oil in Valdez from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The captain of the ship, Captain Joseph Hazelwood, came on board after having drinks with a friend at the port. Once the ship was filled they wasted no time and began their journey to the refineries in Long Beach, California after dark on the evening of March 23, 1989. When the captain boarded the ship, he knew many things about the ship. For example, when the 987 foot long ship is fully loaded it rides five stories deep in the water (Blashfield, 17). Bligh Reef, which they would be passing by is only 40 feet below the surface of the sea. This massive ship takes at least two miles to stop. Knowing all of this information Captain Hazelwood decided to cut it close by trying to turn the tanker in the narrow space between the ice and the reef. (Schoowe, 11). With all of this known, the captain did three strange things. He ordered the helmsman to put the ship on automatic pilot, he ordered the engines accelerated to a speed normally used only in open seas, and he left the bridge, with a junior officer, third mate Gregory Cousins, in charge while he went to his cabin. What happened next will later be a ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The Benefits of Private and Montessori School Systems Versus the Research Paper

The Benefits of Private and Montessori School Systems Versus the Public School System - Research Paper Example Both public and private schools are good for the children, but they have certain differences which can be important factors while deciding the schools for the children. Public schools are those which are governed by the state, where all the decisions regarding the school would be taken by the state and the government. Private schools are those which are privately owned, the owner of the school or the board of trust would decide anything regarding the school and its benefits. Even the Montessori schools are owned by an individual or a group, and which is privatized. These schools have different features, facilities, and structure of the system, and these factors influence the education of the children (Dronkers & Robert, â€Å"School Choice in the Light of the Effectiveness Differences of Various Types of Public and Private Schools in 19 OECD Countries.†) Thesis Statement There are certain differences in the public schools and the private schools, regarding the benefits, struct ures, education system and size among others, primarily due to the difference in ownership. Both the schools are delivering education to the children of the world, and both public and private schools are helpful to them. Both of them have focused on the same objective, but in different ways. In relation to the topic of the paper it can be stated that both the public and private schools are effective and beneficial to the children, and it depends upon the students, their locations, their affordability and adaptability to decide which schools to join. However, the private and the Montessori schools are providing better educational system as compared to the public schools, which can facilitate the students to gain dynamic learning skills. In the paper, the major objective would be to highlight the benefits of the public as against the Montessori and private schools and compare them to show how they are related to the educational system of the world. Argument School is a place where chi ldren get their first lessons regarding, the world, its people, life, environment and manners among others. A school is just not for gaining bookish knowledge; it also gives the children a scope to develop themselves in every manner. The more facility a school gives a child the more exposure that child gets. In many places in the world, children are still not getting proper education. In many of the places children are not going to school due to the lack of awareness and due to the less number of affordable schools for them. In few places the children are not getting the opportunity to go to school because of the differences in their nature, color, religion, race and cast among others. These factors are the obstacle in the educational system, and both private and public schools are facing these obstacles. Private and public both the schools are beneficial to the children, but private schools are a little better than the public schools. The public schools are governed by the state, w here all the decisions regarding the school, students and exams are taken by the government. In the private school, the ownership is privatized and an individual or a group can be the owner of a private school. Private school has no such direct connection with the government. The owner or the board members are responsible for taking any decision regarding the sch